The Iraqi currency notes circulating in Mosul city were evaluated for the occurrence of ESBLs and AmpC b-lactamaseproducing bacteria. Four hundred and twenty-two Gram-positive and negative bacterial isolates with different antimicrobial resistance profiles were recovered from 250 samples collected during the period from April to July 2021, among which 150 isolates (35.5%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). The study found that 16.4% and 14.8% of Gram negative isolates were positive for ESBLs and AmpC phenotypic detection tests, respectively. Interestingly, 6.6% of the isolates were simultaneously positive for both tests. Molecular characterization was carried out using PCR technique to determine the prevalent ESBLs gene\s. The results revealed that blaTEM and blaCTX-M were the most prevalent ESBLs genes (28.6% and 26.2%, respectively). Moreover, 11.9% of the tested isolates appeared to have dual genes (blaTEM þ blaSHV). Multiplex PCR results showed the prevalence of blaFOX (52.6%) and blaCMY (21.1%) among AmpC genes detected. Remarkably, both types of b-lactamases were simultaneously detected in 76.5% of the phenotypically positive isolates. The present study suggests that the currency notes could act as a potential carrier of ESBLs and AmpC b-lactamaseproducing bacteria.
Al-Hasso, Mahmood Zeki; Gergees, Shakir Ghazi; and Mohialdeen, Zahraa Khairialdeen
"Molecular characterization of ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases in Bacteria Isolated from Currency Notes Circulating in Mosul City, Iraq,"
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science: Vol. 8
, Article 25.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.33640/2405-609X.3239
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